Clinical Studies

Browse through the list of references below to read about clinical studies about proton therapy. This list of references on proton therapy is a selection of articles and is not intended to be an exhaustive bibliography.



  • Harald Paganetti, “Proton Therapy Physics”, 2012, Series in Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.
  • James M. Metz and Charles R. Thomas, Jr., “Proton Therapy”, 2010, Radiation Medicine Rounds, Volume 1, Issue 3.
  • Thomas F. Delaney, Hanne M. Kooy, “Proton and charged particle radiotherapy”, 2007, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


  • Dvorak T., Wazer DE., “Evaluation of potential proton therapy utilization in a market-based environment”, Pubmed 20630388, Journal of the American College of Radiology, 2010, 7(7): 522-8.
  • Chung CS, et al. “Comparative analysis of second malignancy risk in patients treated with Proton Therapy versus conventional Photon Therapy”, Red Journal S0360-3016(08)01001-8, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2008, 72(1):S8.
  • Murakami M., et al. “Report on proton therapy according to good clinical practice at Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center”, Pubmed 11905036, Nihon Igaku Hoshasen Zasshi, 2002, 62(2): 79-85.



  • Mendenhall NP., et al. “Early outcomes from three prospective trials of image-guided proton therapy for prostate cancer”, Pubmed 21093164, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2012, 1; 82(1):213-21.
  • Hoppe BS., et al. “Erectile function, incontinence, and other quality of life outcomes following proton therapy for prostate cancer in men 69 years old and younger”, Pubmed 22253020, Cancer, 2012, 15;118(18):4619-26.
  • Nihei K., et al. “Multi-institutional Phase II study of proton beam therapy for organ-confined prostate cancer focusing on the incidence of late rectal toxicities”, Pubmed 20832180, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2011, 81 (2): 390-6.
  • Zietman AL., et al. “Randomized trial comparing conventional-dose with high-dose conformal radiation therapy in early-stage adenocarcinoma of the prostate long-term results from proton radiation oncology group/American college of radiology 95-09”, Pubmed 20124169, Journal of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), 2010, 28 (7): 1106-11.
  • Talcott JA., et al. “Patient-Reported Long-Term Outcomes After Conventional and High-Dose Combined Proton and Photon Radiation for Early Prostate Cancer”, Jama 185544, Journal of the American Medical Association, 2010, Vol. 303, No. 11.
  • Vargas C., et al. “Proton therapy coverage for prostate cancer treatment”, Pubmed 18374228. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2008, 70 (5): 1492-501.


  • Mizumoto M., et al. “Phase I/II trial of hyper fractionated concomitant boost proton radiotherapy for supratentorial gliblastoma multiforme”, Pubmed 19695794, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2010, 77 (1): 98-105.
  • DeLaney TF, et al. “Phase II study of high-dose photon/proton radiotherapy in the management of spine sarcomas”, Pubmed 19095372, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2009, 74 (3): 732-9.
  • Fitzek MM., et al. “Combined proton and photon irradiation for craniopharyngioma: long-term results of the early cohort of patients treated at Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory and Massachusetts General Hospital”, Pubmed 16580494, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2006, 64 (5): 1348-54.
  • Marucci L., et al. “Spinal cord tolerance to high-dose fractionated 3D conformal proton-photon irradiation as evaluated by equivalent uniform dose and dose volume histogram analysis”, Pubmed 15145175, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2004, 59 (2): 551-5.
  • Noel G., et al. “Proton beam therapy in the management of central nervous system tumors in childhood: the preliminary experience of the Centre de Protonthérapie d’ Orsay”, Pubmed 12652619, Medical and Pediatric Oncology, 2003, 40, (5): 309-15.
  • Fitzek MM., et al. “Dose-escalation with proton/photon irradiation for Daumas-Duport lower-grade glioma: results of an institutional phase I/II trial”, Pubmed 11516862, International Journal Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2001, 51 (1): 131-7.


  • Bekkering GE., et al. “The effectiveness and safety of proton radiation therapy for indications of the eye: a systematic review”, Pubmed 19370423, Strahlentherapie und Onkologie, 2009, 185(4): 211-21.
  • Zambarakji HJ., et al. “Proton beam irradiation for neovascular age-related macular degeneration”, Pubmed 16935343, Ophthalmology, 2006, 113 (11): 2012-9.
  • Westekemper H., et al. “Analysis of ocular surface alterations following proton beam radiation in eyes with conjunctival malignant melanoma”, Pubmed 16721565, Der Ophthlmologe: Zeitshrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft, 2006, 103 (7): 588-95.
  • Höcht S., et al. “Proton or stereotactic photon irradiation for posterior uveal melanoma? A planning intercomparison”, Pubmed 16362788, Stahlentherapie und Onkologie, 2005, 181 (12): 783-8.
  • Spatola C., et al. “Clinical application of proton beams in the treatment of uveal melanoma: the first therapies carried out in Italy and preliminary results (CATANA Project)”, Pubmed 14870772, Tumori, 2004, 89 (5): 502-9.
  • Char DH, Bove R, Phillips TL, “Laser and proton radiation to reduce uveal melanoma-associated exudative retinal detachments”, Pubmed 14971563, Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society, 2003, 101: 53-6; discussion 56-7.
  • Ciulla TA., et al. “Proton therapy for exudative age-related macular degeneration: a randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial”, Pubmed 12470761, American Journal of Ophthlmology, 2002, 134 (6): 905-6.


  • Nishimura H., et al. “Proton-beam therapy for olfactory neuroblastoma”, Pubmed 17398027, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2007, 68 (3): 758-62.
  • Chen TC., Chamberlain. MC., “Adjuvant therapy for unresectable meningiomas: benign and malignant”, Pubmed 18081514, Neurosurgical Focus, 2007, Vol. 23, No. 4, Page 1.
  • Lin R., et al. “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: report treatment with conformal proton therapy—dose-volume histogram analysis”, Pubmed 12470761, American Journal of Ophthalmology, 2002, 134 (6): 905-6.


  • Westover KD., et al. “Proton SBRT for medically inoperable stage I NSCLC”, Pubmed 22551902, Journal of Thoracic Oncology, 2012, 7(6):1021-5.
  • Koay EJ., et al. “Adaptive/Nonadaptive Proton Radiation Planning and Outcomes in a Phase II Trial for Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer”, Pubmed 22543217, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2012.
  • Sejpal S. “Early findings on toxicity of proton beam therapy with concurrent chemotherapy for nonsmall cell lung cancer”, Pubmed 21264827, 2011, 1; 117(13):3004-13.
  • Wang C., et al. “Comparisons of dose-volume histograms for proton-beam versus 3-D conformal x-ray therapy in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer”, Pubmed 19370425, Strahlentherapie und Onkologie, 2009, 185 (4): 231-4.
  • Hata M., et al. “Hypofractionated high-dose proton beam therapy for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer: preliminary results of a phase I/II clinical study”, Pubmed 17379439, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2007, 68 (3): 786-93.
  • Nihei K., et al. “High-dose proton beam therapy for Stage I non-small –cell lung cancer”, Pubmed 16458447, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2006, 65 (1): 107-11.
  • Bonnet RB., et al. “Effects of proton and combined proton/photon beam radiation on pulmonary function in patients with resectable but medically inoperable non-small cell lung cancer”, Pubmed 11742905, Chest. 2001, 120 (6):1803-10.


  • Bush DA., et al. “Partial breast irradiation delivered with proton beam: results of a phase II trial”, Pubmed 21729673, Clinical Breast Cancer, 2011, 11 (4): 241-5.
  • Bush DA., et al. “A technique of partial breast irradiation utilizing proton beam radiotherapy: comparison with conformal x-ray therapy”, Pubmed 17476139, Cancer Journal (Sudbury, Mass.), 2007, 13 (2): 114-8.
  • Taghian AG., et al. “Accelerated partial breast irradiation using proton beams: Initial dosimetric experience”, Pubmed 16730137, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2006, 65 (5): 1404-10.
  • Kozak KR., et al. “Accelerated partial-breast irradiation using proton beams: initial clinical experience”, Pubmed 17011445, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2006, 66 (3): 691-8.


  • Bush DA., et al. “The safety and efficacy of high-dose proton beam radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: a phase 2 prospective trial”, Pubmed 21264826, Cancer, 2011, 117 (13): 3053-9.
  • Kawashima M., et al. “Phase II study of radiotherapy employing proton beam for hepatocellular carcinoma”, Pubmed 15774777, Journal of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), 2005, 23 (9): 1839-46.


  • Trakul N., et al. “Modern radiation therapy techniques for pancreatic cancer”, Pubmed 22341260, Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, 2012, 41(1):223-35.
  • Johung K, Saif MW, Chang BW, “Treatment of locally advanced pancreatic cancer: the role of radiation therapy”, Pubmed 22075449, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2012, 1; 82 (2): 508-18.
  • Hong TS., et al. “Phase I study of preoperative short-course chemoradiation with proton beam therapy and capecitabine for resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma of the head”, Pubmed 20421151, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2011 79 (1): 151-7.
  • Zurlo A., et al. “The role of proton therapy in the treatment of large irradiation volumes: a comparative planning study of pancreatic and biliary tumors”, Pubmed 10924999, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2000, 48 (1): 277-88.


  • Yamada S., et al. “Current status and perspective of heavy ion beam therapy for patients with pelvic recurrence after primarily resected rectal cancer”, Pubmed 19718862, Gan to Kagaku Ryoho Cancer and Chemotherapy, 2009, 36 (8): 1263-6.


  • Miyanaga N., et al. “A bladder preservation regimen using intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer: a prospective study”, Pubmed 10710246, International Journal of Urology (JUS), 2000, 7 (2): 41-8.


  • Ohno T., et al. “Accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy for cervical cancer: multi-institutional prospective study of forum for nuclear cooperation in Asia among eight Asian countries”, Pubmed 17919839, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2008, 70 (5): 1522-9.
  • Georg D., et al. “Image-guided radiotherapy for cervix cancer: high-tech external beam therapy versus high-tech brachytherapy”, Pubmed 18495372, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2008, 71 (4): 1272-8.
  • Kagei K., et al. “Long-term results of proton beam therapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix”, Pubmed 12654436, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2003, 55 (5): 1265-71.


  • Nikoghosyan AV., et al. “Randomised trial of proton vs. carbon ion radiation therapy in patients with low and intermediate grade chondrosarcoma of the skull base, clinical phase II study”, Pubmed 21050498, BMC Cancer, 2010, 10: 606.
  • Blattmann C., et al. “Non-randomized therapy trial to determine the safety and efficacy of heavy ion radiotherapy in patients with non-resectable osteosarcoma”, Pubmed 20226028, BMC Cancer, 2010, 10:96.


  • Reimers M., et al. “Heavy charged particle therapy of bone and soft tissue sarcoma. A phase I-II trial of the University of California Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Northern California Oncology Group”, Pubmed 2431614, American Journal of Clinical Oncology, 1986, 9 (6): 488-93.


  • Armstrong FD., Holtz Children’s Hospital, “Proton-Beam Therapy and Health-Related Quality of Life in Children With CNS Tumors”, JCO 2012 42 1248, Journal of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), 2012, Vol. 30, as 10.1200/JCO.2012.42.1248.
  • Cotter SE, et al. “Proton Radiotherapy for solid tumors of childhood”, Pubmed 22417062, Technology in cancer research and treatment, 2012, 11(3):267-78.
  • Merchant TE, et al. “Proton versus photon radiotherapy for common pediatric brain tumors: comparison of models of does characteristics and their relationship to cognitive function”, Pubmed 18306274, Pediatric blood & cancer, 2008, 51(1):110-7.
  • MacDonald SM, et al. “Proton radiotherapy for childhood ependymoma: initial clinical outcomes and dose comparisons”, Pubmed 18325681. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2008, 15; 71(4):979-86.
  • Habrand JL., “Proton therapy in pediatric skull base and cervical canal low-grade bone malignancies”, Pubmed 18440726, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2008, 71 (3): 672-5.
  • Buehrer S., et al. “Evaluation of propofol for repeated prolonged deep sedation in children undergoing proton radiation therapy”, Pubmed 17827185, British Journal of Anesthesia, 2007, 99 (4): 556-60.
  • Hug EB, et al. “Proton radiotherapy in management of pediatric base of skull tumors”, Pubmed 11958897, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2002, 52 (4): 1017-24.